Dourine has been described every bit a neglected Equus caballus affliction yesteryear scientists, who believe greater efforts necessitate to last pose into diagnostic tests, in addition to ameliorate drugs developed to process it.
The necessitate is fifty-fifty to a greater extent than compelling, they say, given the ever-increasing international displace of horses.
Dourine, or roofing sickness, is a parasitic venereal affliction of equines caused yesteryear a protozoan, Trypanosoma equiperdum.
Dourine is amidst a complex of infectious diseases known every bit Equine trypanosomosis, which besides includes nagana in addition to surra. They are caused yesteryear several species of the genus Trypanosoma that are transmitted cyclically yesteryear tsetse flies, mechanically yesteryear other haematophagous flies, or sexually.
They laissez passer ascent to of import economical losses inwards Africa, the Middle East, Asia, in addition to Latin America.
“Nevertheless, they tin terminate last considered every bit brute diseases that are seriously neglected, both yesteryear the scientific community in addition to yesteryear veterinarian government in addition to regulatory organisations,” Philippe Büscher in addition to her colleagues wrote inwards a review published inwards the magazine Parasites & Vectors.
“The province of affairs is aggravated yesteryear the reluctance of many endemic countries to notify dourine in addition to surra to the World Organisation for Animal Health.”
Vaccines against these diseases create non exist. Chemotherapy is able to clear the parasites from blood circulation. However, nearly of the organisms are known to alive mainly exterior the vascular system, including the fundamental nervous system.
Evidence is accumulating that none of the chemotherapy drugs are effective inwards the neurological phase of the disease, since they are unable to cross the blood-brain barrier inwards sufficient amounts.
The international review squad says major obstacles to the local in addition to global command of these diseases are the lack of vaccines, the inability of drugs to cure the neurological phase of the infections, inconsistent illustration definitions in addition to the limitations of electrical current diagnostics.
“Recent outbreaks of surra in addition to dourine inwards Europe illustrate the adventure in addition to consequences of importation of equine trypanosomosis amongst infected animals into non-endemic countries.
“In thought of the ever-increasing displace of horses some the globe, at that topographic point is non exclusively the obvious necessitate for reliable curative in addition to safe drugs simply besides for accurate diagnostic tests in addition to algorithms.”
Unfortunately, clinical signs are non e’er clear, parasitological tests are non sufficiently sensitive, blood tests are non every bit sensitive every bit they could be, in addition to molecular tests cannot distinguish the taxa inside the Trypanozoon subgenus.
“We recommend studies into improved molecular in addition to serological tests amongst the highest possible sensitivity in addition to specificity.
“We realise that this is an ambitious goal, simply it is dictated yesteryear needs at the quest of care.
“However, depending on available handling options, it may non e’er last necessary to position which trypanosome taxon is responsible for a given infection.”
Equine trypanosomosis: enigmas in addition to diagnostic challenges
Philippe Büscher, Mary Isabel Gonzatti, Laurent Hébert, Noboru Inoue, Ilaria Pascucci, Achim Schnaufer, Keisuke Suganuma, Louis Touratier in addition to Nick Van Reet. Parasites & Vectors 2019 12:234. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3484-x