A Swedish study of semen together with swabs from stallions to endure used inwards artificial insemination establish relatively few of the thousands of samples tested carried potential pathogens.
Although artificial insemination was developed equally a means to command affliction transmission, pathogens tin nevertheless endure passed to females inwards semen used inwards this way.
In addition, bacteria tin impairment sperm character during storage.
While semen is considered sterile, it becomes contaminated past times the male’s normal bacterial works equally it passes out of the reproductive tract.
Collected semen may equally good perish contaminated from the air, from equipment used inwards its collection, during handling, together with from bacteria acquaint or together with hence the penis.
Because of these risks, semen samples from stallions to endure used for artificial insemination are tested earlier the breeding flavor inwards Sweden to minimize transmission of pathogens to inseminated mares.
This operate is done at the National Veterinary Institute inwards Uppsala.
Researchers from the institute together with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences carried out a retrospective analysis of potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from 25,512 samples submitted from 2007 to 2017. The samples comprised non exclusively semen, but equally good swabs taken from or together with hence the penis area.
Taylorella equigenitalis, the bacterium that causes contagious equine metritis, was establish inwards eleven out of 2308 stallions, Ziyad Al-Kass together with his colleagues reported inwards the journal, Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica.
If T. equigenitalis was detected, stallions were treated alongside antibiotics together with re-tested afterwards inwards the same year.
The almost unremarkably establish potential pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae, which tin crusade bacterial pneumonia inwards horses, together with beta haemolytic streptococci, which has been linked to infections of the reproductive system, upper respiratory tract, equally good equally cases of strangles-like disease.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which tin crusade a attain of problems, from loss of sight to reproductive problems, was equally good isolated occasionally.
However, overall, potential pathogens were identified inwards relatively few of the samples submitted to the institute during the 10-year period. It was, they said, reassuring that together with hence few were identified inwards the study.
Furthermore, T. equigenitalis had been establish inwards exclusively 1 stallion since 2012.
The scientists noted that antibiotics are unremarkably added to semen extenders to cut down the increment of bacteria that may direct hold contaminated the ejaculate during semen collection.
“However, this do represents a non-therapeutic purpose of antibiotics, which may contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance.
“Since the reproductive tract of the mare has a well-developed immune defence to eliminate bacteria deposited during natural mating, pocket-size numbers of bacteria inwards inseminated semen may non stand upwards for a rootage of infection.
“Therefore, increasing awareness of the type of bacteria probable to come about inwards semen may enable a to a greater extent than prudent purpose of antibiotics to endure suggested, inwards employment alongside the electrical flow withdraw to cut down antibiotic usage.”
The amount study squad comprised Al-Kass, Erik Eriksson, Elisabeth Bagge, Margareta Wallgren together with Jane Margaret Morrell
Bacteria detected inwards the genital tract, semen or pre-ejaculatory fluid of Swedish stallions from 2007 to 2017
Ziyad Al-Kass, Erik Eriksson, Elisabeth Bagge, Margareta Wallgren together with Jane Margaret Morrell
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2019 61:25 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13028-019-0459-z